Friday, July 19, 2019
Birth Defects Essay -- essays research papers
Birth Defects No one is immune to birth defects, yet not everyone is equally susceptible. Birth defects are not merely a medical problem. They have profound effects on the social and psychological well being of their family and friends. In the normal course of fetal development, cells migrate to their appropriate destination so that organs and limbs form where they should. Usually, the genes perform flawlessly, but mistakes can and do occur. Some of the most common birth defects results from the interaction between one or two abnormal genes out of 100,000 that make up who we are. This is caused by the genes parents pass on or effected by drugs and alcohol upon the fetus of a new born child. Down's syndrome, the most common genetic disease formerly known as mongolism, "occurs one in every six hundred births throughout the world" ( Storm 102). It is caused by chromosomal error, where there is an extra chromosome 21. Instead of have two chromosomes as does a normal individual, there are three. These children's features include up slanted eyelids, depressed foreheads, hearing loss, dental problems, poor speech development, heart disease and intestinal problems where surgery is required. Parents feel very helpless and guilty in many of these and similar situations, feeling as if they are abnormal. However most can learn to walk, talk, dress themselves and eat. Special work programs are available that can help the child reach their education level. Also these work programs help takes off the many stresses facing parents. They no longer have to go it alone. Tay Sachs disease is another selective genetic disorder that destroyed nerve cells. This causes mental retardation, loss of muscle control and death. Children who inherit an abnormal gene from both parents will inherit the decease. The carrier parents have one normal gene and one defective gene. Carriers of Tay-Sachs disease have no symptoms. " If two carriers have children, each child has twenty-five percent chance of inheriting the defective gene (both parents)" (Strom 174). These children are unable to produce an enzyme that breaks down fats in the brain and nerve cells. The cells become clogged with fat and prevent the cells from functioning normally. Within three to four years their bodies dies. Sandra vividly remembers how happy she was to have a baby brother and what a beautiful, h... ... be wrong. " Since two hundred and fifty thousand babies with birth defects of varying severity are born in the United States each year" ( Gravelle 6), it would be hard not to meet some of these people. In the past few decades, many strides have been taken to help understand the causes of such diseases with hope of treatments and cures. Also works of finding ways to help the parents cope with their emotional devastation have been taken as many accomplishments have been made. Parents are now finding ways to move past their anger and frustration and enjoy a loving relationship with their child. With a wider knowledge of information available and treatment to drug addits families can pull though. Caring for a child is a tough emotional and physical battle but should always be looked as a gift, these children have much to offer. Work Cited Darling, Jon. Children Who Are Different. Toronto: The C.V. Mosby Company, 1982. Gardner, Suzy. Substance Abuse During Pregnancy: Protecting The Foetus And New Born Child. Norwich: UEA Norwich., 1992. Gravelle, Karen. Understanding Birth Defects. U.S.A: Frankin Watts, 1990. Strom, Charles. Heredity and Ability. U.S.A: Plenum Press, 1990.